Astronomy is only vaguely considered a branch of Earth science, but it is included because it includes a study of planet Earth in relation to other celestial bodies and how (at least for our solar system) the Earth and other objects in space affect each other (at least for our solar system). Earth and Space Science (ESS) is about the Earth and its place within the solar system and the universe. It includes the study of the land, oceans, the atmosphere and all the life that lives there, from animals to plants. It includes the water cycle, the carbon cycle, the rock cycle, and anything that gradually affects the Earth over time.
At the time, the International Astronomical Union (the Earth's governing body for making these decisions) ruled that a planet is a celestial body that orbits the Sun, is massive enough to have an almost round shape and has cleaned its orbit of debris. In accordance with the Academies' recommendations, NASA will expand the core with competitively selected Earth exploration missions, in order to provide innovation and provide additional high-priority observations. These datasets, which cover even the most remote areas of the Earth, are freely and openly available to anyone. Because the spacecraft was designed to operate in an area with no atmosphere, it didn't need to have smooth edges or an aerodynamic shape.
The “space” part talks about the position of the Earth in the solar system and also explores the solar system and the universe as a whole. So what is the place of terrestrial and space sciences in STEM? Well, the science of Earth and space is clearly a science, because it is the study of a part of the natural world. An example is the gravitational waves or ripples in space-time that come from interactions between black holes. It involves learning about Earth, the atmospheres, oceans, and life on Earth, as well as studying the other planets in the solar system, the universe as a whole, and how humans can explore space.
This means that when humans send a probe to a distant planet or asteroid, the ship won't encounter resistance the same way an airplane does when it sails through space. Elizabeth's report includes an exclusive with the Office of the Vice President of the United States, in which she spoke several times with the International Space Station, witnessed the launch of five manned space flights on two continents, worked in a space suit and participated in a simulated mission to Mars. In fact, the vacuum environment in space and on the Moon is one of the reasons why the Apollo program's lunar lander was designed to look almost like a spider, as described by the Apollo 9 crew. In space, sound is not transmitted because there are no molecules close enough to each other to transmit sound to each other.