Space exploration allows us to test or refute scientific theories developed on Earth. The study of the solar system, for example, has allowed us to understand phenomena such as gravity, the magnetosphere, the atmosphere, fluid dynamics and the geological evolution of other planets. Exploring Mars helps scientists understand the momentous changes in climate that can fundamentally alter planets. It also allows us to search for biosignatures, signs that could reveal if life was abundant in the planet's past and if it still exists on Mars today.
And the more we learn about Mars, the better equipped we'll be to try to make a living there, one day in the future. Research carried out by national space exploration agencies, such as NASA and Roscosmos, is one of the reasons given by supporters to justify government spending. An article in the scientific journal Nature suggested the use of asteroids as a gateway for space exploration, with the final destination of Mars. Another statement is that space exploration is a necessity for humanity and that staying on Earth will lead to extinction.
Beyond the technical factors that could generalize life in space, it has been suggested that the lack of private property, the inability or difficulty of establishing property rights in space have been an impediment to the development of space for human habitation. The Sun generates most of the space weather, which can affect energy generation and transmission systems on Earth and interfere with and even damage satellites and space probes. Spaceflight is the use of space technology to achieve the flight of spaceships to and through outer space. Titan has the distinction of being the only object in the Outer Solar System that has been explored with a lander, the Huygens probe deployed by the Cassini spacecraft.
The first era of space exploration was driven by a space race between the Soviet Union and the United States. Some spacecraft remain in space indefinitely, some disintegrate during re-entry into the atmosphere, and others reach the planetary or lunar surface to land or impact. Once every 26 months, Earth and Mars align in a way that minimizes travel times and expenses, allowing spaceships to travel interplanetary in approximately half a year. They also conducted biological experiments on Martian soil designed to discover signs of life in space, but their results were inconclusive and scientists still disagree on how to interpret the data.
The manned exploration of the Moon began in 1968 with the Apollo 8 mission that successfully orbited the Moon, being the first time that an extraterrestrial object was orbited by humans. Common reasons for exploring space include the advancement of scientific research, national prestige, the union of different nations, the guarantee of the future survival of humanity, and the development of military and strategic advantages over other countries. It has the distinction of being the first remote celestial object to be flown over, orbited and landed by spaceships, and the only remote celestial object visited by humans. The exploration of Mars has been an important part of the space exploration programs of the Soviet Union (later Russia), the United States, Europe, Japan and India.